Students' Mathematical Critical Thinking Based on Self-Esteem Through Problem Based Learning in Geometry

Krida Singgih Kuncoro, Agustin Zakkia, Fitria Sulistyowati, Betty Kusumaningrum


This study aims to describe and determine mathematical critical thinking skills based on students' self-esteem. This research used a mixed method with a sequential explanatory research design. The research population was first year mathematics education students who took geometry courses, and the research samples were selected by way of purposive sampling technique. Research subjects were grouped based on high, medium, and low self-esteem categories to be interviewed about students' critical thinking skills. The research instruments were tests and interviews. The results showed that students had various mathematical critical thinking skills in terms of self-esteem. Four students possessed a high level of self-esteem as indicated  by the fact that two students’ mathematical critical thinking skills results were classified in high category while the remaining two students were in medium category. Of 25 students who had moderate self-esteem, 5 students obtained high category in the results of their mathematical critical thinking skills, 14 students had their result in moderate category students, and 6 students were in the low category. Of 3 students with low self-esteem, one student had their results of the mathematical critical thinking ability result in the high category and two students had their result in the low category. It can be concluded that there is less significant correlation between self-esteem and students' critical thinking skills. Meanwhile, there are three different levels in students' critical thinking skills in terms of self-esteem at high, medium, and low levels.


mathematical critical thinking, self-esteem, problem-based learning

Full Text:



Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2016). Introduction to the psychology of self-esteem. Self-Esteem: Perspectives, Influences, and Improvement Strategies, 1–17.

Agoestanto, A., & Sukestiyarno, Y. L. (2017). Analysis of mathematics critical thinking students in junior high school based on cognitive style. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 824(1), 12052.

Ansori, H., Hidayanto, T., & Noorbaiti, R. (2020). Critical thinking skill of prospective mathematics teachers in solving the two-dimensional geometry problem. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1422(1), 12004.

Bardach, L., & Klassen, R. M. (2020). Smart teachers, successful students? A systematic review of the literature on teachers’ cognitive abilities and teacher effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 30, 100312.

Basri, H., Purwanto, As’ari, A. R., & Sisworo. (2019). Investigating critical thinking skill of junior high school in solving mathematical problem. International Journal of Instruction, 12(3), 745–758.

Blascovich, J., Tomaka, J., Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, 1, 115–160.

Changwong, K., Sukkamart, A., & Sisan, B. (2018). Critical thinking skill development: Analysis of a new learning management model for Thai high schools. Journal of International Studies, 11(2).

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed). Research Design Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches.

Dolapcioglu, S., & Doğanay, A. (2020). Development of critical thinking in mathematics classes via authentic learning: an action research. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 1–24.

Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 43–52.

Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical Thinking Assessment. Theory into Practice, 32(3), 179–186.

Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Insight Assessment, 2007(1), 1–23.

Fennell, M. (2016). Overcoming low self-esteem: A self-help guide using cognitive behavioural techniques. Hachette UK.

Fong, C. J., Kim, Y., Davis, C. W., Hoang, T., & Kim, Y. W. (2017). A meta-analysis on critical thinking and community college student achievement. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 26, 71–83.

Ghilay, Y., & Ghilay, R. (2017). ISMS: A new model for ımproving student motivation and self-esteem in primary education. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(3), 383–398.

Harjo, B., Kartowagiran, B., & Mahmudi, A. (2019). Development of Critical Thinking Skill Instruments on Mathematical Learning High School. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 149–166.

Hasibuan, A. M., Saragih, S., & Amry, Z. (2018). Development of Learning Materials Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Improve Problem Solving Ability and Student Learning Independence. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education.

Isoda, M., & Katagiri, S. (2012). Mathematical Thinking: How to Develop it in the Classroom (Monographs). World Scientific Publishing.

Jelatu, S. (2018). Effect of GeoGebra-Aided REACT Strategy on Understanding of Geometry Concepts. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 325–336.

Kuncoro, K. S., Junaedi, I., & Dwijanto, D. (2018). Analysis of problem solving on project based learning with resource based learning approach computer-aided program. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 983(1), 12150.

McKay, M., & Fanning, P. (2016). Self-esteem: A proven program of cognitive techniques for assessing, improving, and maintaining your self-esteem. New Harbinger Publications.

Md, M. R. (2019). 21st Century skill “problem solving”: Defining the concept. Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2(1), 64–74.

Mulyanto, H., Gunarhadi, G., & Indriayu, M. (2018). The effect of problem based learning model on student mathematics learning outcomes viewed from critical thinking skills. International Journal of Educational Research Review, 3(2), 37–45.

Nappi, J. S. (2017). The importance of questioning in developing critical thinking skills. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 84(1), 30.

Royce, C. S., Hayes, M. M., & Schwartzstein, R. M. (2019). Teaching critical thinking: a case for instruction in cognitive biases to reduce diagnostic errors and improve patient safety. Academic Medicine, 94(2), 187–194.

Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Hess, M., Pfetsch, J., & Scheithauer, H. (2018). Who is involved in cyberbullying? Latent class analysis of cyberbullying roles and their associations with aggression, self-esteem, and empathy. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 12(4).

Shanta, S., & Wells, J. G. (2020). T/E design based learning: assessing student critical thinking and problem solving abilities. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 1–19.

Sulistyowati, F., Budiyono, B., & Slamet, I. (2017). Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 895(1).

Sulistyowati, F., Kuncoro, K. S., Setiana, D. S., & Purwoko, R. Y. (2019). Solving high order thinking problem with a different way in trigonometry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1315(1), 12001.

Susilo, B. E., Darhim, D., & Prabawanto, S. (2019). Students critical thinking skills toward concepts differences in finding area of a plane region and definite integral. Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education, 8(1), 1–7.

Ulger, K. (2018). The effect of problem-based learning on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of students in visual arts education. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 12(1).

Widodo, S. A., Pangesti, A. D., Istiqomah, I., Kuncoro, K. S., & Arigiyati, T. A. (2020). Thinking Process of Concrete Student in Solving Two-Dimensional Problems. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 14(2), 117–128.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal
SEAMEO Regional Centre for QITEP in Mathematics
Jl. Kaliurang Km 6, Sambisari, Condongcatur, Depok, Sleman
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Telp. +62 274 889955

p-ISSN: 2089-4716 | e-ISSN: 2721-8546

Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

 Supported by: