Students’ Perception on Borobudur Temple as Mathematic Learning Resource

Sri Wulandari Danoebroto


This study aims to describe junior high school student’s perception of Borobudur Temple as mathematic learning resources. Borobudur Temple is well known as having extraordinary architecture built algorithmically. The parts of Borobudur Temple such as the stupa, statue, and wall carvings (relief) consist of many geometric models. This study employs an ethnomathematics perspective in describing perceptions about cultural artefacts as a mathematical model. The result of this study may be used as a basis for developing meaningful mathematic learning in schools. The sample of the study was 313 students of
junior high school located near Borobudur Temple. The measure of the sampling adequacy with KMO is 0.86 from which confirms that the number of the sample is sufficient. The data were collected using a questionnaire with Likert scale 1 to 4 with the following range: (1) disagree, (2) neutral, (3) agree, and (4) strongly agree. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors of perception of Borobudur Temple as a mathematic model, those are: (1) Borobudur Temple is a geometry model, (2) Borobudur Temple can be used as mathematic learning source at school, and (3) learning mathematics from Borobudur Temple is helpful for students. The total variance reached 49,572%. The value of Cronbach alpha was 0,8204 for the 14 items. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to attain average items of mean and average standard deviation for each factor. The result of the research shows that: (1) students agree that Borobudur Temple is a geometry model, (2) Borobudur Temple can be used as mathematic learning source at school, and (3) learning mathematics from Borobudur Temple is helpful for them.


Borobudur Temple; mathematics; perception; students

Full Text:



Patricia F. Campbell, Masako Nishio, Toni M. Smith, Lawrence M. Clark, Darcy L. Conant, Amber H. Rust, . . . Youyoung Choi. (2014). The relationship between teachers' mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge, teachers' perceptions, and student achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 45(4), 419-459.

Chudnoff, E. (n.d.). Intuition in mathematics. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from

D’Ambrosio, U. (2006). The program ethnomathematics: A theoretical basis of the dynamics of intra-cultural encounters. The Journal of Mathematics and Culture, 1(1), 1-7.

Francois, K., & Van Kerkhove, B. (2010). Ethnomathematics and the philosophy of mathematics (Education). In B. Lowe, & T. Muller (Eds.). PhiMSAMP. Philosophy of mathematics: Sociological aspect and mathematical practice (pp. 121-154). London: College Publication.

Gerdes, P. (2014). Ethnomathematics and education in Africa. Boane: ISTEG.

Gravemeijer, K. P. E. (1994). Developing realistic mathematics education. Utrecht: CD  Press.

Masingila, J.O. (1993). Learning from mathematics practice in out-of-school situations. Journal for the Learning of Mathematics, 13(2), 18-22.

Masingila, J.O. (2002). Examining students’ perception of their everyday mathematics practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 11, 30-39.

Parmono, A. (1988). Some architectural design principles of temples in Java: A study through the building projection on the relief of Borobudur temple. Yogyakarta:Gadjah Mada University Press.

Prediger, S. (2004). Intercultural perspectives on mathematics learning - Developing a theoretical framework. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(3), 377-406.

Rosa, M., & Orey, D.C. (2013). Culturally relevant pedagogy an ethnomathematical approach. Journal of Mathematics & Culture, 7(1), 74-97.

Schoenfeld. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics. In G, Douglas A (Eds.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-366). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Skemp, R. R. (1971). The psychology of learning mathematics. New York: Penguin Books Ltd.

Soetarno (1988). Aneka candi kuno di Indonesia. Semarang: Penerbit Dahara Prize.

Situngkir, H. (2010). Borobudur was built algorithmically. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from:

Tall, D. (2013). Integrating history, technology and education in mathematics. Retrieved February 2014, from




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal
SEAMEO Regional Centre for QITEP in Mathematics
Jl. Kaliurang Km 6, Sambisari, Condongcatur, Depok, Sleman
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Telp. +62 274 889955

p-ISSN: 2089-4716 | e-ISSN: 2721-8546

Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

Supported by: