Developing Learning Materials in Addition and Subtraction of Fractions with Realistic Mathematics Approach for Students Grade 4

Ari Wijayanti


This study aims to describe the development process of learning materials that consists of lesson plan, student activity sheet, and fraction card. The study focuses on teaching addition and subtraction of fractions through realistic mathematics education. The development process used the Four-D model which consists of four steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. In the first step (define), the teacher established the terms of learning by determining fundamental problem, analyzing students, and specifying instructional objectives. In the second step (design), the prototype of learning materials was constructed as a test standard, choosing the proper media and selecting the format. On the third step (develop), the learning materials were validated by the experts and then revised. Once the learning materials were ready they were tested in classroom. The teacher then collected data to measure the quality of the learning materials. The last step, dissemination, was the implementation of learning materials on a broad scale. From this step, the teacher collected data to measure the effectiveness of the learning. This study generated good learning
materials and supported students Grade 4 to learn about addition and subtraction of fractions. While the results are providing some promising directions, a much larger study would be needed to determine if the results are due to the approach or due to the teachers’ enthusiasm or what is known as the Hawthorne Effect.


development research; fractions; learning materials; realistic mathematics approach; primary school mathematics

Full Text:



De Lange, J. (1996). Using and applying mathematics in education. In A.J. Bishop, et al. (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics education (pp. 49-97). Netherlands:Kluwer.

Frei, S. (2008). Teaching mathematics today. Huntington Beach: Shell Education.

Gravemeijer, K. (1994). Developing realistic mathematics education. Utrecht: CD- ß Press.

Heruman. (2013). Model pembelajaran matematika di sekolah dasar. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya

Ibrahim, M. (2003). Pembelajaran kooperatif. Surabaya: Unesa University Press.

Kemp, J.E., Morisson, G.R., & Ross, S.M. (1994). Designing effective instruction. USA:Macmillan College Publishing Company.

Majid, A. (2008). Perencanaan pembelajaran. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Munadi, Y. (2012). Media pembelajaran sebuah pendekatan baru. Jakarta: Gaung Persada.

Pribadi, B. A. (2011). Model desain sistem pembelajaran. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat.

Purwanto. (2009). Evaluasi hasil belajar. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Reys, R., Lindquist, M., Lambdin, D.V., Suydam, M., & Smith. N.L. (2004). Helping children learn mathematics. USA: Jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sadiman, A.S., Rahardjo, R., Haryono, A., & Harjito. (2014). Media pendidikan, pengertian, pengembangan, dan pemanfaatannya. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

Slavin, R. E. (2005). Educational psychology, theory and practice. USA: Pearson Education.

Thiagarajan, S., D.S. Semmel, & M.I. Semmel. (1974). Instructional development for training teachers of exceptional children, a sourcebook. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Treffers, A. (1991). Realistic mathematics education in the Netherlands. In L. Streefland (Eds.), Realistic mathematics education in primary school. Utrecht: Fruedenthal Institute.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal
SEAMEO Regional Centre for QITEP in Mathematics
Jl. Kaliurang Km 6, Sambisari, Condongcatur, Depok, Sleman
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Telp. +62 274 889955

p-ISSN: 2089-4716 | e-ISSN: 2721-8546

Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

Supported by: