The Implementation of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) to Support Indonesian 5th-Grade Students to Learn Multiplication and Division

Nanang Setiadi


This paper discusses the use of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) as an alternative approach to enhance Indonesian 5th-grade students’ ability in the topics of multiplication and division. The study presents the analysis of Indonesian 5th-grade students’ difficulties in applying vertical multiplication and division, that is in reapplying the steps of the method. Furthermore, it describes a mathematics teaching learning practice to stimulate students in constructing their strategies, mathematical models, and number sense in solving mathematical problems that involve multiplication and division. In implementing RME, the steps taken to improve the learning process were: (1) analysing in detail the difficulties of students in vertical multiplication and division, (2) providing contexts of mathematical problems that can stimulate students to think mathematically, (3) holding a class mathematics congress, and (4) conducting a test to measure students’ achievement. The implementation of RME has helped the 5th-grade students to improve their ability in multiplication and division. There were more students whose grades passed the minimum passing score. Moreover, there was an increase in the class average test score.


RME;5th-Grade students;multiplication;division;vertical method

Full Text:



Ahmad, N., & Sivasubramaniam, P. (2010). Multiplication and the Reference Sum Method. International Conference on Mathematics Education Research.8, pp. 72-78. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. doi:

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Fosnot, C. T., & Dolk, M. (2001). Constructing Multiplication and Division. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Freudenthal, H. (1991). Revisiting Mathematics Education: China Lecturers. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (2003). Educational Research: An Introduction (7th ed). Boston: Pearson Education.

Hasan, Q. A. (2012). Rekonstruksi Pemahaman Konsep Pembagian Pada Siswa Berkemampuan Tinggi. Seminar Nasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika.Yogyakarta: Jurusan Pendidikan FMIPA UNY. Retrieved from

Hiebert, J. (1984). Children's Mathematics Learning: The Struggle to Link Form and Understanding. The Elementary School Journal, 84(5), 496-513. doi:

Karim, M. A. (1996). Pendidikan Matematika 1. Malang: Depdikbud.Rosyadi, W. (2016). Analisis Kesulitan Belajar Operasi Hitung Pembagian Pada Siswa Kelas IV SDN di Kecamatan Winong Kabupaten Pati. Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Retrieved from

Slavin, S. (2005). Matematika Praktis untuk Sekolah Dasar Kelas I dan Kelas II.Bandung: Rekarya Jaya.

Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Drijvers, P. (2014). Realistic Mathematics Education. Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education, 521-534. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4978-8

Yusmanita, S., Ikhsan, M., & Zubainur, C. M. (2018). Penerapan Pendekatan Matematika Realistik untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Operasi Hitung Matematika. Jurnal Elemen, 4(1), 93–104. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal
SEAMEO Regional Centre for QITEP in Mathematics
Jl. Kaliurang Km 6, Sambisari, Condongcatur, Depok, Sleman
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Telp. +62 274 889955

p-ISSN: 2089-4716 | e-ISSN: 2721-8546

Southeast Asian Mathematics Education Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

 Supported by: